Friday, March 27, 2020

The Ins and Outs of Othello Essay Example For Students

The Ins and Outs of Othello Essay A tragedy without meaning Othello is not, as the very genre of tragedy seeks to imitate action and life, both of which have an inherit meaning. In some ways, Shakespeares work can be considered didactic as in the case in classical tragedy, the heros falls arises as fault of a hamartia on his part, a fault which plagues humanity. In fact, throughout the work, Othello is revealed to have many more faults and weaknesses than a man of his stature should posses, providing a reason for his downfall. The works main protagonist, the scheming Iago, ultimately has his own reasons for his actions; actions, which on surface value, might appear to be inherently evil and motiveless. A third variable here, the role of the setting, and its part in the tragedy also helps to explain the reasons for it. Through Iagos motives, and Othellos inherit weaknesses, the tragedy of the play is meaningful for the audience. We will write a custom essay on The Ins and Outs of Othello specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now By examining Iagos actions and his soliloquies the audience is able to discern that Iago does indeed have motives for his actions, however weak they may be. Despite Iago recognizing that indeed the moor is of a free and open nature Oth Act 1 Sc. 3, he still does despise him. Iago has to be examined closer to discover his motives: of course, he is jealous of Cassios appointment as Othellos lieutenant and this is an ultimate irony in itself as he later mocks Othello for his own jealousy, having succumbed to the green-eyed monster. There is also of course Iagos blatant racial slurs and hatred towards Othello, and his paranoia regarding the supposed infidelity of his wife, And it is thought abroad that twixt my sheets hes done my office Oth Act 1 Sc. 3. However, the latter excuse may seem less reasonable, considering that Iago also utters later that he believes that Cassio has also slept with his wife. Iagos attitude to the subject, contrasting with Othellos view of sex as a unifying for ce, is that it is something inherently dirty and revolting, increasing his paranoia. Iagos main vice however is his lust for power. Ultimately, his aim is not to rise to the rank of lieutenant, but to go as far as he is able to. This point is justified by his plotting not only against Cassio, the man who holds his coveted position, but Othello, the general of the Venetian army himself. Ultimately, Iago is surprised by how easy it becomes to manipulate Othello and by the end of the play is even a little sorry for the ease at which his plan has come to fruition. No man without a clear motive, as has been often suggested for Iago, could have devised such a plan, that struck the victim blow by blow, with no time to recover to rational thought in between. Iagos main motive then becomes a classic case of tall-poppy syndrome as he seeks not only to dethrone the god of war and the goddess of love,  but to also make them suffer. The setting in the play also plays a significant role in the explanation for the reasons for the tragedy. The play opens in Venice, the epitome of western civilization and culture in Shakespeares time Tillyard 113. Under the influence of Venices culture, there does exist imaginary bonds of control and order, which keep characters emotions in check. In Act 2, following the move to Cyprus, these bonds are gradually released, freeing the way for chaos to rule over order in a way not possible in the first Act. The characters have now reached the frontier. Evidence of this is found with reference to the poor weather encircling Cyprus at the time. In this case there is both a literal and metaphorical storm brewing, as Iagos plot begins to shape in his mind. The chidden billow seems to pelt the clouds; The wind-shaked charge, with high and monstrous mane, Seems to cast water on the burning Bear And quench the guards of thever-fixed Pole. Oth Act 2 Sc. 1 .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 , .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .postImageUrl , .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 , .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038:hover , .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038:visited , .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038:active { border:0!important; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038:active , .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038 .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u31a2802565410bb0553edd5a6e969038:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Analysis of The Tempest EssayThe fact that Othello fails to note the power of the brewing storm condemns him to his fate. It must be noted that Othello is a soldier, a general, by profession. In war, rules and conventions apply, but once these bonds of control are taken away, he does not know how to react or behave, considering he has lived his life as if he were fighting a battle. Indeed, these bonds of control are released even further as Othello orders celebration and revelry to mark the destruction of the Turkish fleet. Little does he know that nearby, Iago is using the occasion to plot a destruction of a different kind. The faults that are found in Othellos character are sufficient to demonstrate that, although he may not be deserving of his eventual fate, there is some justification for what has happened. At the start of the play, Othello is portrayed as the god of war, his wife the goddess of love Emert 77. However, during the play it is proved that Othello has too many flaws, and has the basic hamartia of the classic tragic hero. He is not a god, but merely a man, which enables the audience to feel sympathy and pathos towards the lead character. From the very beginning of the play the audience is told that Othello is an outsider. He does not seem to belong to our world, nor do we know how he managed to arrive. He is not even a European, much less an Italian. This racial and cultural difference is explored throughout the play, mainly in the opening Act. Eventually, his lack of knowledge regarding the customs of Venetian women helps to contribute to his downfall. In short, Othello seems to suffer from an acute form of virgin/whore dichotomy, a condition which means in practice that he is only able to see women, in particular his wife, as either absolutely pure and holy, or otherwise foul and wretched  depending upon their fidelity or lack of it. Othello is unable to accept the fact that his wife can make mistakes, and if she does, she can only be considered whore: there proves to be no middle ground. In fact, at the time, although Venice was considered Europes cultural capital, it was seen to have certain drawbacks, especially regarding promiscuity and the diminished role of fidelity in marriage Tillyard 134. Add to this the fact that Iago is dealing with a man who has only recently been engaged in wedlock and therefore is less certain when questioned about his wifes character. Othello has seen the way in which Desdemona has deceived her father and eloped, what is to say that such a consummate actress could not be using the same skills to exploit her own husband? Othellos weakness in his communication skills and his expression of inner feelings is further testament to his lack of perfection. Although he is being modest before the Duke and Brabantio regarding his limitations with his speech, these very qualities are evidenced later in the play. Rude am I in my speech And little blessed with the soft phrase of peace Oth Act 1 Sc. 3 and, And little of this great world can I speak More than pertains to feats of broil and battle; Oth Act 1 Sc. 3 Othello knows how to communicate with men, through obvious and direct means, but lacks the subtle charms to persuade women Emert 80. In Act 1, we discover this as his biggest weakness so far. Michael Cassio is in fact made a model of how Othello should behave in front of, and when referring to women, through his charming of Desdemona and unwillingness to give in to Iago, as he tries to tempt him with Desdemonas virtues in Act 2. Cassio make no illusions of perfection, in contrast to Othello. He admits his vices such as his weakness for drinking, proving he knows his own human qualities. One of the main reasons therefore for Othellos downfall and Cassios realization of power at the end of the play is that whilst Cassios own view of him and that of others are aligned, Othellos are askew. Cassios communicational behavior contrasts strongly with Othellos. .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 , .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .postImageUrl , .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 , .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190:hover , .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190:visited , .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190:active { border:0!important; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190:active , .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190 .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8dad7345544c5528620266ebe29fc190:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Is Macbeth a man or a monster? EssayWhen Othello ultimately cannot cope with women, he reverts to the only way he knows how: violence: revenge through blood note this contrasts with Iagos wife for wife revenge mentality. This point is proof that eventually Othello is not able to cope with playing more than one role at the same time: in Cyprus he is forced to play both the passionate lover, and governor at various times, whilst his wifes personality proves much more flexible. At various times Desdemona plays the role of the seductress, loving daughter, the sexually aware woman, and the caring wife Emert 82. All along there are signs appearing that Othello can anticipate his fall, and Iago will have his way. Othellos gullibility also proves a reason for his downfall.  He places absolute trust in Iago, believing in his past virtues and his supposed devotion to his wife Emilia. This all-or-nothing approach ultimately transpires to accentuate his jealous rage. He is not prone to introspection, to examining himself from within, but instead is lent to blindly believe the foibles of others, especially Iago. His gullibility enables his self-control, once so evident, to unravel, and be placed in the hands of others. For example, Lodovico cannot believe the changes in his character: Is this the noble Moor whom our full Senate Call all in all sufficient? Is this the nature whom passion could not shake? Whose solid virtue The shot of accident nor dart of chance Could neither graze nor pierce? Oth Act 4 Sc. 1 The fact is that although Othellos passionate emotion helps to fire his imagination; it ultimately leads to blind all reason and rational thinking take 1:3 as Othello recounts the stories of his adventurous past in order to win Brabantios daughter from him. Ultimately the reason behind all the madness is demonstrated in the last scene of the play. What Othello plans to commit is not a murder, but instead a sacrifice. He does this through love for Desdemona, to save her from herself, and for his own honor. This act helps establish a new Othello, an Othello even nobler and braver than the Othello of Act 1, an Othello that arrests his previous decline. O balmy breath, that dost almost persuade Justice to break her sword! One more, one more! Be thus when thou art dead, and I will kill thee and love thee after. One more, and this the last. Oth Act 5 Sc. 2 The audience is left not with a feeling of rage for a senseless, meaningless tragedy, but knowledge that this has taken place for a reason, for a hamartia on the part of the lead character. As Othello dies upon a kiss, briefly we are left with no pain, but with only a feeling of redemption. The reasons for the tragedy are all too plain to see. Iago has his own motives for bringing down Othello and Desdemona, and ultimately he is surprised by how easily he is able to pry apart two people so completely in love with each other. The role of the setting contributes towards the lead characters downfall as the bonds of continuity are broken with the shift to Cyprus Emert 70. Othellos own imperfections are evident from early on in the play, from his gullibility, to his jealousy, to his limited communication skills. It is here where, as in all tragedy, the play contains a certain didactic element as the author seeks to explain the reasons that a great man such as Othello can fall. As Iago ultimately recoils with the ease at which he attains his foul ends, there comes a warning for us all: for if Othello was the greatest the world had to offer, then what hope do we all have?

Friday, March 6, 2020

Free Essays on Music Changed My Life

Music changed my life There was a time in my life when I paid little attention to music. This time is known as childhood. I was too busy with my Ninja Turtles and G.I. Joes to even think about music. That’s not to say I didn’t listen to it, though. Despite the hideous music we now so affectionately call â€Å"the 80’s† that was playing on the radio stations when a was a child, I still listened. I started paying attention when I was nine years old, and that is when my affliction with music all started. To gain a better understanding of how music has changed my life over the years, we must start from the beginning of my musical learning timeline. When I was nine years old, my mother paid for piano lessons from my neighbor, and I started learning songs right away. I started with the usual beginner’s songs – Mary Had a Little Lamb, Yankee Doodle, and etc. I practiced every day, even though most times I didn’t want to do so. I took piano lessons for about a year and ended up getting through one book, and then baseball started conflicting with my practice time, so I quit my piano lessons. My musical learning did not end here however. The next instrument I picked up was the Trumpet. When I was in sixth grade, the trumpet was all the rage. So, I jumped on the band wagon (no pun intended). I joined the liberty bell band and started taking private lessons. I was 2nd chair by the end of 7th grade, which basically meant I was second best. I still remember the boy who was 1st. He could hit every note on the scale, and his seat was well deserved. When the â€Å"coolness factor† wore off, I quit band and trumpet all together. I guess you could say, the 8th grade clichà © of trying to be cool didn’t include being in band, thus ending my trumpet career. My brother played drums all through high school, and he had a drum kit in his room that I had access to all times. So, after my trumpet playing was over, he started ... Free Essays on Music Changed My Life Free Essays on Music Changed My Life Music changed my life There was a time in my life when I paid little attention to music. This time is known as childhood. I was too busy with my Ninja Turtles and G.I. Joes to even think about music. That’s not to say I didn’t listen to it, though. Despite the hideous music we now so affectionately call â€Å"the 80’s† that was playing on the radio stations when a was a child, I still listened. I started paying attention when I was nine years old, and that is when my affliction with music all started. To gain a better understanding of how music has changed my life over the years, we must start from the beginning of my musical learning timeline. When I was nine years old, my mother paid for piano lessons from my neighbor, and I started learning songs right away. I started with the usual beginner’s songs – Mary Had a Little Lamb, Yankee Doodle, and etc. I practiced every day, even though most times I didn’t want to do so. I took piano lessons for about a year and ended up getting through one book, and then baseball started conflicting with my practice time, so I quit my piano lessons. My musical learning did not end here however. The next instrument I picked up was the Trumpet. When I was in sixth grade, the trumpet was all the rage. So, I jumped on the band wagon (no pun intended). I joined the liberty bell band and started taking private lessons. I was 2nd chair by the end of 7th grade, which basically meant I was second best. I still remember the boy who was 1st. He could hit every note on the scale, and his seat was well deserved. When the â€Å"coolness factor† wore off, I quit band and trumpet all together. I guess you could say, the 8th grade clichà © of trying to be cool didn’t include being in band, thus ending my trumpet career. My brother played drums all through high school, and he had a drum kit in his room that I had access to all times. So, after my trumpet playing was over, he started ...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Essay on Sonia Shah's review of the Constaant Gardner

On Sonia Shah's review of the Constaant Gardner - Essay Example It can be at times a matter of life and death and the companies’ failure to give out all necessary details regarding something that concerns the life of another human being is immoral. Granted that they are being paid substantially, this is still a moral judgment call that should be adhered to religiously. They should ensure that their subjects comprehend all encompassing particulars pertaining to the scope and effects of the study. By virtue of common sense, a good policy should to first give out an answer form or through an interview, guarantee that a person should first understand what he or she is about to go through before actually including them in any study. Of course this would be next to impossible as there are a number or experiments wherein the danger would not be worth the risk of any human being. On the other hand, we have the different side of the story which portrays the inevitability of such practices in pharmacology. It is as the author puts it, our biggest blunder to disregard the risks that are inherently involved in the development of most drugs. This is the major reason why drug companies have set up shop in regions such as Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America and especially Africa. An American is said to purchase about 10 prescription drugs yearly while the ratio of those who partake in experiments is 20 to less than one. Those who do join in experiments are labeled as ‘guinea pigs’ and are perceived to have little to no choice on the matter (Shah, par. 10). There is such a need for these studies to be conducted and if the option for this is to take it to another country, then the big pharmaceutical companies would gladly take it there. If business can be conducted better elsewhere, then it becomes a no-brainer that they would up and go wherever it is. There is no question that test clinics are necessary to develop new drugs that should be able to help humanity. As long as these

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

California Election Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

California Election Analysis - Research Paper Example The databases of California were consistently and constantly updated throughout the entire election cycle. It not only settled on the next United State’s president, but it also resulted in a supermajority for California’s state Democrats, thanks to Obama emerging victorious. New rules of elections and districts that were redrawn opened the likelihood of a Democrats supermajority in California, in a state that, even before elections, had Democratic majorities and a Democratic governor in both state legislatures. A good number people had and still have an intuitive reaction to a single party taking control of everything. Bob Huff, the Minority Leader of the state Senate said that a supermajority would not be a good thing. The media coverage was a bit biased to one candidate. Mitt Romney’s media overage was particularly negative in the final election days. A final gush of positive media coverage drove President Obama in the final two weeks of the race to the preside ncy, whereas Mitt Romney’s coverage remained, not only negative, but also narrowed down in volume. This was probably for the reason that news outlets transferred their attention to the recent Superstorm Sandy, in accordance with a new study. The Pew Research Center's Excellence in Journalism Project, which is based in Washington,  established that the positive coverage on Obama, which was estimated at 29%, outnumbered his negative coverage, which was estimated at 19%, by 10 points in the final week before voting. On the 6th of November, a survey of 59 news channels established that Romney got significantly more negative opinion and coverage, both in the period dating back to the nominating conferences, and at the conclusion of the campaign, commencing in late August. I feel like final surge of Obama’s positive press decidedly connected to his immense showing in most polls. There were a lot of amplified positive coverage and impressions of the President Obama that sta rted with surveys that trended in his direction. These conclusions were arrived at by measuring statements value in radio stores, television, Internet and newspaper (www.latimes.com). When it comes to ads, the impact on preferences of vote looked harsh and gloomy for Mitt Romney. Negative ads had a greater impact on Mitt Romney, than it had on president Obama. President Obama’s ads drove down Romney’s support and drove up support for the president. It, however, did not move swing voters. Many were marginal voters who did not even turn up on day of Election. On the front of â€Å"likely voter†,  Romney was consistently winning the war of ads. Both the Obama and Romney  ads augmented enthusiasm  among  possible  Romney  voters,  but  not for those of Obama.   Romney’s ads had  impacts on marginal,  decisive  voters, and this raised the probability of voters who  said  they had a preference on him turning out  to vote. Obamaâ₠¬â„¢s campaign had run its ads over 68,000 times, with just about 80% of them attacking Romney. They were loose with facts and at the same time negative. An example is this ad by Obama, when he said that Romney had never stood up to China. Obama claimed that all Romney had ever done was to send them American’s jobs. This was opposed by many as not being true. Many argued that Romney’s previous Bain Capital Company may have invested in firms with businesses and operations in China. Most importantly, there was no

Monday, January 27, 2020

Broad Classification Of Work Motivational Theories Commerce Essay

Broad Classification Of Work Motivational Theories Commerce Essay The work motivation theories can be broadly classified as content theories and process theories. The content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized. They are concerned with types of incentives that drive people to attain need fulfillment. The Maslow hierarchy theory, Fredrick Herzbergs two factor theory and Alderfers ERG needs theory fall in this category. Although such a content approach has logic, is easy to understand, and can be readily translated in practice, the research evidence points out limitations. There is very little research support for these models theoretical basic and predictability. The trade off for simplicity sacrifices true understanding of the complexity of work motivation. On the positive side, however, the content models have given emphasis to important content factors that were largely ignored by human relationists. In addition the Alderfers ERG needs theory allows more flexibility and Herzbergs two-fa ctor theory is useful as an explanation for job satisfaction and as a point of departure for job design. The process theories are concerned with the cognitive antecedents that go into motivation and with the way they are related to one another. The theories given by Vroom, Porter and Lawler, equity theory and attribution theory fall in this category. These theories provide a much sounder explanation of work motivations. The expectancy model of Vroom and the extensions and the refinements provided by Porter and Lawler help explain the important cognitive variables and how they relate to one another in the process of work motivation. The Porter Lawler model also gives specific attention to the important relationship between performance and satisfaction. A growing research literature is somewhat supportive of these expectancy models, but conceptual and methodological problems remain. Unlike the content models, these expectancy models are relatively complex and difficult to translate into actual practice. They have also failed to meet the goals of prediction and control Motivation Theory 1 Adams Equity Theory of Work Motivation The theory explains that a major input into job performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity or inequity that people perceive in work situations. Adam depicts a specific process of how this motivation occurs. Inequality occurs when a person perceives that the ratio of his or her outcomes to inputs and the ratio of a relevant others outcomes to inputs are unequal. Our Outcomes Our Inputs Others Inputs Our Outcomes = Others Outcomes = Equity Our Inputs Others Inputs Our Outcomes > Others Outcomes = Inequity (over-rewarded) Our Inputs Others Inputs Both the inputs and the outputs of the person and the other are based upon the persons perceptions, which are affected by age, sex, education, social status, organizational position, qualifications, and how hard the person works, etc. Outcomes consist primarily of rewards such as pay, status, promotion, and intrinsic interest in the job. Equity sensitivity is the ratio based upon the persons perception of what the person is giving (inputs) and receiving (outcomes) versus the ratio of what the relevant is giving and receiving. This cognition may or may not be the same as someone elses observation of the ratios or the same as the actual situation. If the persons perceived ratio is not equal to the others, he or she will strive to restore the ratio to equity. This striving to restore equity is used as the explanation of work motivation. The strength of this motivation is in direct proportion to the perceived inequity that exists. Research suggests that individuals engage in illegal behaviors to maintain equity in relationships, either with their employing organization or with other people (Greenberg, 1990). The theory was later expanded with the concept of Organizational Justice. Organizational justice reflects the extend to which people perceive that they are treated fairly at work. It identified three different components of justice: distributive (The perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed), procedural (The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions) and interactional (The perceived fairness of the decision makers behavior in the process of decision-making). (Copanzano, Rupp, Mohler and Schminke, 2001). Critiques: Equity theory is descriptive and it reflects much of our everyday experience. As a theory however equity is only partial in analysis and as a predictor. There are many societal and institutional variables (inequalities) that we all navigate. The theory ignores peoples natural resilience, their competitiveness, selflessness and selfishness, their ethical dilemmas in decision-making and their passions. It does not adequately explain interactions in close relationships such as marriage or emotional labor where we may provide care to others at a burdensome cost of declining personal well-being and self-denial. Norms of equity and reciprocity are often discounted in close and romantic friendships or where there are deep family bonds. In the social exchanges of business, causal, or stranger relationships, there may be more of a dominant assumption that inputs are offered with the expectation of a like response. There is more of a formal contract of tangible and intangible reward. A promise unfulfilled, without proper reciprocity incurs a debt of honor. A promise is broken. In our community, obligations of reciprocal response operate. We are expected to apply the Golden Rule and to help where we can an act ably demonstrated by the Parable of the Good Samaritan. Social exchange theory assumes rational, calculated action involving an expected pay-off. We do not always act rationally. Many will not be as selfish as rational action may suggest. Indeed our reward may be the inner glow of respecting oneself and living to ones own values. Such altruism, albeit self-referential, does not sit easily under the assumptions of the rational, economic-person model. Implications It is necessary to pay attention to what employees perceive to be fair and equitable. For example: In my company, one of my colleagues was assigned to a project that required him to work during non business hours frequently. He worked three days at the office and two days at home in a week for a month and half. This caused others to start working from home during business hours. Allow employees to have a voice and an opportunity to appeal. Organizational changes, promoting cooperation, etc. can come easier with equitable outcomes. Managements failure to achieve equity could be costly for the organization. For example: One of my technically team members was not very competent. He took double the time to complete any give work when compared to the others. Management failed to take any action; instead the others were given more work. Eventually, even the competent workers took it easy to restore equity causing project delays. Motivation Theory 2 Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Expectancy theory provides a framework for analyzing work motivation, which is eminently practical. It provides a checklist of factors to be considered in any managerial situation and it points to the links between the relevant factors and the direction, which these factors tend to follow in their interrelationships. (Tony J. Watson, Routledge Kegan Paul, 1986). Expectancy theory holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes. It can be used to predict motivation and behavior in any situation in which a choice between two or more alternatives must be made. (Kreitner R. Kinicki A., Mcgraw Hill, 7th Edition). Vroom gave the following equation of Motivation: Motivation (M) = Valence (V) x Expectancy (E) Valence stands for the preference of an individual for a particular outcome. Thus, when an individual desires a particular outcome the value of V is positive. On the other hand when the individual does not desire a certain outcome, the value of V is negative. The value of expectancy ranges between zero and one. When a certain event will definitely not occur the value of E is zero. On the other hand when the event is sure to occur the value of E is one. Since its original conception, the expectancy theory model has been refined and extended many times. The better know of all is the Porter-Lawler model. Although conventional wisdom argues that satisfaction leads to performance, Porter and Lawler argued the reverse. If rewards are adequate, high levels of performance may lead to satisfaction. In addition to the features included in the original expectancy model, the Porter-Lawler model includes abilities, traits, and role perceptions. Critiques: Vrooms theory does not directly contribute to the techniques of motivating people. It is of value in understanding organizational behavior. It clarifies the relation between individuals and the organizational goals. The model is designed to help management understand and analyze employee motivation and identify some to the relevant variables. However, the theory falls short of providing specific solutions to the motivational problems. The theory also does not take into account the individual differences based on individual perceptions nor does it assume that most people have the same hierarchy of needs. It treats as a variable to be investigated just what it is that particular employees are seeking in their work. Thus the theory indicates only the conceptional determinants of motivation and how they are related. Research studies have confirmed that the association of both kinds of expectancies and valences with effort and performance. The motivated behavior of people arises from their valuing expected rewards, believing effort will lead to performance, and that performance will result in desired rewards. The expectancy theory explains motivation in the U.S. better than elsewhere and therefore may not be suitable for other regions. Implications This theory can be used by the managers to: Â · Determine the primary outcome each employee wants. Â · Decide what levels and kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. Â · Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible. Â · Link desired outcomes and desired performance. Â · Analyze the situation for conflicting expectations. Â · Make sure the rewards are large enough. Â · Make sure the overall system is equitable for everyone. Motivation Theory 3 Maslows Theory of Hierarchy of Need: Maslow believed that within every individual, there exists a hierarchy of five needs and that each level of need must be satisfied before an individual pursues the next higher level of need (Maslow, 1943). As an individual progresses through the various levels of needs, the proceeding needs loose their motivational value. The basic human needs placed by Maslow in an ascending order of importance can be summarized and shown as below: The desire to become what one is capable of becoming. These are the needs to be held in esteem both by oneself and by others. These are the needs to belong and to be accepted by various groups. These are the needs to be free of physical danger. The safety needs look to the future. These are the basic needs for sustaining human life itself, such as food, water, warmth, shelter, and sleep. Maslow in his later work (Maslow, 1954) said: 1. Gratification of the self-actualization need causes an increase in its importance rather than a decrease. 2. Long deprivation of a given need, results in fixation for that need. 3. Higher needs may emerge not after gratification, but rather by long deprivation, renunciation or suppression of lower needs. 4. Human behavior is multi-determined and multi-motivated. Critiques: Part of the appeal of Maslows theory is that it provides both a theory of human motives by classifying basic human needs in a hierarchy and the theory of human motivation that relates these needs to general behavior. Maslows major contribution lies in the hierarchical concept. He was the first to recognize that a need once satisfied is a spent force and ceases to be a motivator. Maslows need hierarchy presents a paradox in as much as while the theory is widely accepted, there is a little research evidence available to support the theory. It is said that beyond structuring needs in a certain fashion Maslow does not give concrete guidance to the managers as to how they should motivate their employees. Implications: The need hierarchy as postulated by Maslow does not appear in practice. It is likely that over fulfillment of anyones particular need may result in fixation for the need. In that case even when a particular need is satisfied a person may still engage in the fulfillment of the same need. Furthermore, in a normal human being, all the needs are not always satisfied entirely. There remains an unsatisfied corner of every need in spite of which the person seeks fulfillment of the higher need. A person may move on to the next need in spite of the lower need being unfulfilled or being partly fulfilled. Conclusion No single motivation theory can suffice in todays workplace. Each motivational theory has its pros and cons. A theory may get the highest performance from an employee but may not from another employee. The organizations workplace has changed dramatically in the past decade. Companies are both downsizing and expanding (often at the same time, in different divisions or levels of the hierarchy). Work is being out-sourced to various regions and countries. The workforce is characterized by increased diversity with highly divergent needs and demands. Information technology has frequently changed both the manner and location of work activities. New organizational forms (such as e-commerce) are now common. Teams are redefining the notion of hierarchy, as well as traditional power distributions. The use of contingent workers is on the rise and globalization and the challenges of managing across borders are now the norm. These changes have had a profound influence on how companies attempt to attract, retain, and motivate their employees. Yet we lack new models capable of guiding managers in this new era of work. As management scholar Peter Cappelli notes, Most observers of the corporate world believe that the traditional relationship between employer and employee is gone, but there is little understanding of why it ended and even less about what is replacing that relationship (Cappelli, 1999). I believe that the existing work motivation and job performance theories are inadequate to cater to the present era of such diverse workforce. New theories of motivation are required to commensurate with this new era.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Crucible VS. McCarthyism

The main difference between McCarthyism and the Crucible is that McCarthyism was a real political period in the United States when Senator McCarthy tried to scare people that communism was leaking into our government but as for the crucible it was a group of people that was just accusing other people of witchcraft. While the Salem witch trials occurred in the late 1600’s, a similar unfortunate situation occurred in the 1950’s with McCarthyism. The Salem witch trials shared many common characteristics.The similarities include continuous accusations, leading politicians, and the reaction to witchcraft and communism. The Salem witch trials and McCarthyism both involved ongoing accusations that led to numerous innocent people being accused and prosecuted. In The Crucible, local people accuse women and men in Salem of witchcraft. When the teenage girls first accuse Tituba, the Reverend’s housekeeper, a chain of accusations begin. To avoid death, Tituba accused others in the town causing each of the accused to place blame on others.The Crucible is a metaphor for the accusations made in the 1950’s during the McCarthyism era. Senator Joseph McCarthy led the series of allegations with a list of people he felt were related somehow to communism. The list that was made grew as more people accused others for personal revenge. These continuous accusations went on until the original list of over 200 grew to almost 10,000. The accusations would not have led to any consequences without a leader to oversee the proceedings. Both the Salem witch trials and McCarthyism had instigators who fueled the hysteria.The Crucible’s judge supervising the trials of those charged of witchcraft. He not only supervised the trials, he set the punishments for those convicted of witchcraft. It was the judge who decided who was to get what punishment although all accused were innocent. The modern Judge Daniforth is Senator Joseph McCarthy who watched over the 1950à ¢â‚¬â„¢s McCarthyism era. During the McCarthyism era, Senator McCarthy oversaw the proceedings and created the House Un-American Committee. Senator McCarthy directed the questioning to all those accused of association with communism.The Salem witch trials and McCarthyism pretty much go hand in hand. During the witch trials everybody started accusing everybody else of witchcraft. During the McCarthyism era, Senator McCarthy started accusing people of being communists. Senator McCarthy also made up most of the statements he said about the supposed communists. Senator McCarthy is a guy that was known for lying and never telling the truth. A lot of people were executed and basically everyone was killed. They both had leaders causing public hysteria against the accused. Then people realized that there was no proof.Also people that were accused had no say if they were guilty weather they were or not. The similarities begin with a culture of panic. Both instances are characterized by this. The Salem Witch Trials were the result of a concerted effort to find witches brought on by panic. The same was true for Senator McCarthy in the Senate. He was on a mission to find communists and rallied a panicked public around him. The hysteria in Salam led to many people being accused of witchcraft and hanged. McCarthyism was fueled by hysteria because people accused others of being Communists. Both were fueled by paranoia and mass hysteria.The McCarthy Hearings were referred to as â€Å"witch hunts† because of their similarity to the Salem witch trials. They both struck fear in the people due to the â€Å"guilty until you confess† attitude which controlled the courts. In Salem the only way to escape death was to confess and repent; in the McCarthy hearings if you were accused, whether guilty or not, you would always be viewed as a Communist. McCarthy also relates to Abigail in The Crucible, because they both made false accusations against innocent people. McCarthy accused people of being communists, whereas Abigail accused people of using witchcraft.Of course, the events were very different in results and reasons, but the main idea of seeking and hunting down the people who represent different ideals is the same. In both cases, the leaders were looking for people to blame their own fears and lack of certainty on. It was with the Salem witch trials that people from one side of town were accused of being witches, not because they had done anything related to witchcraft, but because they or their families occupied valuable land that the accusers or their masters or friends were seeking to purchase at low prices.By associating the land with witchcraft, the value of the property was greatly decreased. If the woman was found guilty of witchcraft, they and their families could be stripped of their property making it easier to be acquired by those seeking to own it. Senator McCarthy managed to form a senate commission to investigate the spread of com munism in the USA, putting particular focus and emphasis on the entertainment industry. This effectively ended their ability to perform or earn a living under their own names, as they were blacklisted by the industry to assuage McCarthy's perceived political masters.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Christian religion Essay

A crucifix is not a mere cross, but a representation of Jesus’ body or corpus. Thus, the latin term corpus christi. Whereas, a cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other, dividing one or two of the lines in half. The crucifix is crucial to the Christians because it’s the principal symbol of the Christian religion. It is primarily used in the Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran and Eastern Orthodox Churches and emphasizes Christ’s sacrifice which is his death by crucifixion. Prayer in front of a crucifix is often part of devotion for Christians, especially those worshipping in a church, and private devotion in a chapel. The person may sit, stand, or kneel in front of the crucifix, sometimes looking at it in contemplation, or merely in front of it with head bowed or eyes closed. In the Catholic Mass, and Anglican Holy Eucharist, a procession begins Mass in which a crucifix is carried forward into the church followed by lector and servers, the priest, deacon, along with some of the other items used in the service such as the Gospels and the altar candles. The crucifix is also one of the most effective means of averting or opposing demons, as stated by many exorcists, including the famous exorcist of the Vatican, Father Gabriele Amorth. In folklore, it is considered to ward off vampires, incubus and succubus. â€Å"I never witnessed nor even heard about an exorcism without a crucifix, though several students in eighth and ninth grades were prime candidates for such a ritual. †(Gabriel Amorth) Anglican, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Coptic, and confessional Lutheran Christians generally use the crucifix in public religious services. The standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright stand and a crosspiece to which the sufferer’s arms were nailed. The Eastern Christian crucifix includes two additional crossbars: the shorter nameplate, to which INRI was affixed; and the shorter stipes, to which the feet were nailed, which is angled upward toward penitent thief St. Dismas and downward toward impenitent thief Gestas. It is thus eight-pointed. The corpora of Eastern Orthodox crucifixes tend to be two-dimensional icons that show Jesus as already dead, as opposed to the depictions of the still-suffering Jesus that can be found in some other Churches. They believe the crucifix is in keeping with Scripture, which states that â€Å"We preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling block, and unto the Greeks foolishness. †(Rudolph Koch) . Citations: Old Christian Symbols, Rudolf Koch Tree of Jesse Directory, Malcolm Low Crucifix Lane, Kate Mosse Wellness Exorcism, Donald Ardell Jewish Encyclopedia, Kaufmann Kohler